Bisamhället

Den här beskrivning av bisamhället är inspirerad av texter från Sveriges biodlares riksförbund (SBR). Det är information som ingår i nybörjarkursen ”Min första sommar som biodlare” som föreningen arrangerar runt om i Sverige tillsammans med studieförbunden. Kursen bygger på samverkan mellan en erfaren biodlare och nybörjaren men kan också användas av nybörjaren ensam eftersom den är rikt illustrerad och försedd med praktiska övningar.

I ett bisamhälle hittar du tre karaktärer.

DROTTNINGEN är den enda tjejen i samhället som är fullständigt könsutvecklad i bisamhället. En bra drottning sägs kunna lägga upp till 3 000 ägg per dygn. Med hjälp av doftämnen styr drottningen livet i samhället och när arbetsbina putsar, matar och vårdar henne förs doftämnen över till bina och sprids vidare i samhället. Drottningen parar sig endast en gång i livet. Normalt byts hon ut efter 2-3 år då bina vill ersätta henne med en ny produktivare drottning. Hennes sviktande äggläggningsförmåga upplevs som en fara för samhällets fortlevnad.

ARBETSBINA är också honor, men pga av en mindre näringsrik föda under uppväxten, är deras könsorgan inte fullt utvecklade. Nyfödda ungbin saknar flygförmåga och först efter ca 3 veckor är till exempel giftkörteln fullt utvecklad. I huvudsak kan man dela in arbetsbiets liv i två perioder.

  • Inomhusarbete med t.ex. cellputsning, matning av larver, packning av pollen, vaxbygge, renhållning av kupan, mottagning och behandling av nektar, värmereglering av samhället och vakttjänst vid flustret.
  • Utomhustjänst med uppgift att samla in bl.a. nektar, pollen, vatten och propolis.

Binas arbetsuppgifter är delvis beroende på åldern, men flexibiliteten är ganska stor mellan de olika uppgifterna. Detta möjliggör en anpassning till de behov, som samhället för tillfället har. Om sommaren lever ett arbetsbi i 5-6 veckor. De arbetsbin, som föds på eftersommaren och hösten, överlever vintern tillsammans med drottningen.

DRÖNARE är namnet på den hanliga individen i bisamhället. Drönaren saknar gadd och har inga möjligheter att försvara sig. Hans huvuduppgift är att säkerställa ungdrottningarnas parning. De drönare som lyckas para sig med en drottning får dessvärre plikta med sitt liv. Könsorganet fastnar i drottningen och slits av från drönarens bakkropp. Drönarna har en ofattbar förmåga att med hjälp av doftämnen spåra upp brunstiga drottningar på flera kilometers avstånd. På hösten motar arbetsbina ut alla kvarvarande drönare ur kupan. Lite oförtjänt beskylls ibland drönarna för att inte göra någon annan nytta. Emellertid visar det sig att de deltar aktivt i både honungsbehandling och värmereglering. Genom att sprida ett speciellt doftämne bidrar drönaren också till harmonin i samhället.

Bisamhällets uppbyggnad

Ett bisamhälle kan bestå av 60-80 000 individer, som samverkar på ett fantastiskt sätt för hela samhällets expansion och fortlevnad.Grunden i uppbyggnaden är vaxkakorna, som är sammansatta av sexkantiga celler på ett sätt, som ger största möjliga utrymme i förhållande till mängden använt material.
Cellerna byggs i olika storlekar beroende på dess användningsområde. Störst är de celler vari det skall matas upp nya drottningar – drottningceller. Drönarcellerna är också betydligt större än arbetsbicellerna. Dessa är vanligast och används även som förrådsceller för honung och pollen.
Drottningen börjar lägga ägg i mitten av samhället, där det är varmast. Efter hand utvidgas detta cirkelformade område med flera ägg. Cirklarna blir större och större samtidigt som drottningen fortsätter sin äggläggning även i angränsande vaxkakor. Området får efterhand formen av ett klot.
Äggen kläcks till larver. Cellerna förseglas med ett vaxlock varefter larven förpuppar sig.
Larver och puppor kallas av biodlaren för yngel.

Hjälp, bina svärmar!

Vad händer och varför? När ett bisamhälle svärmar, ger sig den gamla drottningen i väg tillsammans med ett stort antal arbetsbin. Svärmen samlas först i den typiska klungformen i bigårdens närhet, innan färden går vidare mot den nya boplatsen. Kvar i samhället finns resten av arbetsbina och ett antal svärmceller, ur vilka det snart kryper fram ungdrottningar.

Svärmning är binas sätt att föröka sig och utlösande faktorer kan vara tex att:

  • Drottningen upplevs som gammal och förbrukad av bina.
  • Samhället har för litet utrymme.

Båda dessa tillstånd får sin lösning genom svärmningen.

Bikupans delar

Honungsbiet har stor anpassningsförmåga, men i vårt land lever det på den yttersta gränsen för sin naturliga utbredning. Du måste därför inhysa ditt bisamhälle i en för vårt klimat ändamålsenlig bikupa. Det finns många olika modeller på bikupor, men den enklaste och billigaste är uppstaplingskupan.En mer komplicerad och därmed dyrare kupa är den s.k. trågkupan, som var vanligare förr.

En bikupa består i stora drag av en botten med en ingång – ett fluster. På botten ställs de lådor i vilka ramarna med vaxbygget hänger. Efter hand som samhället växer staplar biodlaren på flera lådor (därav namnet uppstaplingskupa). I en uppstaplingskupa växer honungsförrådet framförallt uppåt i lådstapeln. Med hjälp av ett spärrgaller kan biodlaren skilja de lådor, som skall skördas på honung, skattlådorna, från resten av samhället där yngelrummet finns.Översta lådan skall täckas på något sätt -enklast med en skiva eller en plastfolie annars med täckbrädor.Allra överst finns ett tak, som skydd mot väder och vind.Drönarram kallas en ram, som huvudsakligen innehåller drönarceller. Den kan användas bl.a. till att reducera kvalstermängden i samhället. (Se vidare i tex ”Varroabekämpning med ekologiska metoder”.)

Honungens sammansättning

Honungens lukt, smak och färg beror av de blommor som bina hämtat nektar från. Kemiskt sett innehåller honung ca 75% sockerarter och ca 20% vatten. Huvuddelen av sockret är de enkla sockerarterna druvsocker och fruktsocker. Svensk honung är i regel fast till konsistensen eftersom våra blommors nektar innehåller relativt mycket druvsocker.
Förutom vatten och socker finns enzymer, mineralämnen, aminosyror, spårämnen, vitaminer, aromatiska ämnen, inhibiner (bakteriehämmande ämnen) m.m.i honung.
Inga tillsatser är tillåtna i honung.

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